Radiocarbon calibration

Radiocarbon calibration

Wikipedia uses several templates that self-update every day to keep date and age information current. These are very useful for a dynamic online encyclopedia and save users from having to regularly update that kind of information. However, when using this kind of template, a few things should be kept in mind. In mirrored versions of the site as well as print versions , such statistics will immediately become inaccurate. As such, they should always be accompanied by a note to indicate the date at which it was last correct. For more information about self-updating as-of dates, see Wikipedia:As of. This is true whether the information updates or is fixed. In lists, however, they should only be used where the self-updating feature is needed. Some of these templates can be complex, and will greatly add to the loading time of a page if used many times.

Relative dating

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Dating is a stage of romantic relationships in humans whereby two people meet socially with the aim of each assessing the other’s suitability as a prospective partner in an intimate relationship. It is a form of courtship , consisting of social activities done by the couple, either alone or with others.

The protocols and practices of dating, and the terms used to describe it, vary considerably from country to country and over time. While the term has several meanings, the most frequent usage refers to two people exploring whether they are romantically or sexually compatible by participating in dates with the other. With the use of modern technology, people can date via telephone or computer or just meet in person. Dating may also involve two or more people who have already decided that they share romantic or sexual feelings toward each other.

These people will have dates on a regular basis, and they may or may not be having sexual relations. This period of courtship is sometimes seen as a precursor to engagement. Dating as an institution is a relatively recent phenomenon which has mainly emerged in the last few centuries. From the standpoint of anthropology and sociology , dating is linked with other institutions such as marriage and the family which have also been changing rapidly and which have been subject to many forces, including advances in technology and medicine.

As humans societies have evolved from hunter-gatherers into civilized societies , there have been substantial changes in relations between people, with perhaps one of a few remaining biological constants being that both adult women and men must have sexual intercourse for human procreation to happen.

Wikipedia:Age calculation templates

Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious traditions. Various traditional beliefs held that Planet Earth , or the entire Universe , was brought into being in a grand creation event by one or more gods. Once these cultures developed calendars , many began to ponder the question of precisely how long ago this event happened. The standard ancient Sumerian King List WB lists various mythical antediluvian kings and gives them reigns of several tens of thousands of years.

The first Sumerian king Alulim , at Eridu , is described as reigning for 28, years, followed by several later kings of similar periods. In total these antediluvian kings ruled for , years from the time when “the kingship was lowered from heaven” to the time when “the flood” swept over the land.

for new calculations, in the form of radiometric dating. such as the uranium-​radium and thorium series, were.

Samarium—neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of rocks and meteorites , based on the radioactive decay of a long-lived samarium isotope Sm to a radiogenic neodymium isotope Nd. Neodymium isotope ratios together with samarium-neodymium ratios are used to provide information on age information and the source of igneous melts. It is sometimes assumed that at the moment when crustal material is formed from the mantle the neodymium isotope ratio depends only on the time when this event occurred, but thereafter it evolves in a way that depends on the new ratio of samarium to neodymium in the crustal material, which will be different from the ratio in the mantle material.

Samarium—neodymium dating allows us to determine when the crustal material was formed. The usefulness of Sm—Nd dating stems from the fact that these two elements are rare earth elements and are thus, theoretically, not particularly susceptible to partitioning during sedimentation and diagenesis. In many cases, Sm—Nd and Rb—Sr isotope data are used together. Samarium has five naturally occurring isotopes, and neodymium has seven. The two elements are joined in a parent—daughter relationship by the alpha decay of parent Sm to radiogenic daughter Nd with a half-life of 1.

Some of the Sm may itself have originally been produced through alpha-decay from Gd , which has a half-life of 1. To find the date at which a rock or group of rocks formed one can use the method of isochron dating.

Luminescence dating

Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating , as use of the word “absolute” implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates coins and written history.

Techniques include tree rings in timbers, radiocarbon dating of wood or bones, and trapped-charge dating methods such as thermoluminescence dating of glazed ceramics.

Some of these templates, such as {{Birth date and age}} add useful metadata to {{Age in years}} – returns a 2-year range; in someone born in may.

The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassium and argon measurements, while the newer method requires only one rock fragment or mineral grain and uses a single measurement of argon isotopes. The sample is generally crushed and single crystals of a mineral or fragments of rock hand-selected for analysis. These are then irradiated to produce 39 Ar from 39 K.

The sample is then degassed in a high-vacuum mass spectrometer via a laser or resistance furnace. Heating causes the crystal structure of the mineral or minerals to degrade, and, as the sample melts, trapped gases are released. The gas may include atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, and argon, and radiogenic gases, like argon and helium, generated from regular radioactive decay over geologic time.

The J factor relates to the fluence of the neutron bombardment during the irradiation process; a denser flow of neutron particles will convert more atoms of 39 K to 39 Ar than a less dense one. However, in a metamorphic rock that has not exceeded its closure temperature the age likely dates the crystallization of the mineral. Thus, a granite containing all three minerals will record three different “ages” of emplacement as it cools down through these closure temperatures.

Thus, although a crystallization age is not recorded, the information is still useful in constructing the thermal history of the rock. Dating minerals may provide age information on a rock, but assumptions must be made. Minerals usually only record the last time they cooled down below the closure temperature, and this may not represent all of the events which the rock has undergone, and may not match the age of intrusion.

Thus, discretion and interpretation of age dating is essential. This technique allows the errors involved in K-Ar dating to be checked.

Chronological dating

Age disparity in sexual relationships is the difference in ages of individuals in sexual relationships. Concepts of these relationships, including what defines an age disparity, have developed over time and vary among societies. Differences in age preferences for mates can stem from evolutionary mating strategies and age preferences in sexual partners may vary cross-culturally. There are also social theories for age differences in relationships as well as suggested reasons for ‘alternative’ age-hypogamous relationships.

Age-disparity relationships have been documented for most of recorded history and have been regarded with a wide range of attitudes dependent on sociocultural norms and legal systems. Data in Australia [2] and United Kingdom [3] show an almost identical pattern.

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Potassium—argon dating , abbreviated K—Ar dating , is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium K into argon Ar. Potassium is a common element found in many materials, such as micas , clay minerals , tephra , and evaporites. In these materials, the decay product 40 Ar is able to escape the liquid molten rock, but starts to accumulate when the rock solidifies recrystallizes.

The amount of argon sublimation that occurs is a function of the purity of the sample, the composition of the mother material, and a number of other factors. Time since recrystallization is calculated by measuring the ratio of the amount of 40 Ar accumulated to the amount of 40 K remaining. The long half-life of 40 K allows the method to be used to calculate the absolute age of samples older than a few thousand years.

The quickly cooled lavas that make nearly ideal samples for K—Ar dating also preserve a record of the direction and intensity of the local magnetic field as the sample cooled past the Curie temperature of iron.

Age of consent

Speed dating is a formalized matchmaking process which has the purpose of encouraging eligible singles to meet large numbers of new potential partners in a very short period of time. SpeedDating , as a single word, is a registered trademark of Aish HaTorah. Speed dating , as two separate words, is often used as a generic term for similar events.

The earliest documented example of speed dating was by Aryeh Alan and Rena Hirsch of Los Angeles in early who developed speed dating as a solution to the problem of typical single events where “only attractive women and outgoing men have success at the end of the evening”. Usually advance registration is required for speed dating events. Men and women are rotated to meet each other over a series of short “dates” usually lasting from three to eight minutes depending on the organization running the event.

Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in allows the method to be used to calculate the absolute age of samples older than a in the interval since the rock crystallized or was recrystallized.

In archaeology , palaeontology , and geomorphology , lichenometry is a geomorphic method of geochronologic dating that uses lichen growth to determine the age of exposed rock , based on a presumed specific rate of increase in radial size over time. The measured growth rates of R. Lichenometry can provide dates for glacial deposits in tundra environments, lake level changes, glacial moraines , trim lines , palaeofloods, [10] rockfalls, seismic events associated with the rockfalls, [2] talus scree stabilization and former extent of permafrost or very persistent snow cover.

Among the potential problems of the technique are the difficulty of correctly identifying the species, delay between exposure and colonization, varying growth rates from region to region as well as the fact that growth rates are not always constant over time, dependence of the rate of growth upon substrate texture and composition, climate, and determining which lichen is the largest. Several methods exist for dating surfaces with help of lichenometry; the most simple relies on a single largest lichen while other methods use more.

There are also differences in the way the lichen is measured; while some suggest that the largest diameter should be measured, other scientists prefer the diameter of the largest inscribed circle. A problem in dating lichens is the fact that several thalli can fuse together, making several minor lichens appears as a larger one of older age.

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